The issuance of the ACNA 2019 Book of Common Prayer has brought back to the forefront many issues that have been “out there” for a long time. One of them is right up front in both the Apostles’ and Nicene Creed: whether either or both should start with “I believe” or “We believe.” This post will attempt to shed a little light on the subject, because this change came from outside the Anglican/Episcopal world in a way that may surprise some people.
It’s certain that the 1662 and 1928 Books of Common Prayer started the creeds with the first person singular “I”. The 1979 BCP changed it to “We” and that’s stuck in the craw of many ever since. For me personally, the change came sooner. When I “swam the Tiber” in 1972, I walked into a church which had instituted the Novus Ordo Missae two years earlier. It was not only in the vernacular but started the Nicene Creed with “We believe.”
As an aside, I had been raised with the Apostles’ Creed being used in Morning Prayer and the Nicene in the Holy Communion. The latter creed was pretty much a fixture at Mass. The first time I heard the Apostles’ Creed used with Mass of any kind was John Michael Talbot’s The Lord’s Supper in 1979, and it finds its way there in situations where time is of the essence.
But I digress. The reasoning given at the time was that the Mass after Vatican II was supposed to be more participatory and community oriented, thus the plural declaration of faith. I think it’s reasonable to say that the Episcopal Church followed the RCC’s lead on this (and many other) liturgical subjects for the 1979 book.
But did the Roman Catholic Church actually change the Creed? The answer is “no.” Unlike the Anglicans, whose primary liturgical language is English (wonder why?) the Novus Ordo Missae, like those that went before it, was promulgated in Latin and translated into the various vernaculars that Roman Catholics find themselves in. The decision to use “We” was that of those who made the original official translation of the NOM into English. You can see this in this little except from a Latin-English missal I picked up in the UK, where “Credo — I believe” clearly appears in the Latin version of the Creed.
Additionally, towards the end of the Creed, “Confiteor una baptisma” (I confess one baptism,) where the first person singular persists, as is also the case with “expecto resurrectionem” (look forward to the resurrection.)
This decidedly unilingual change was done away with when the NOM’s current translation was made official and began use in Advent 2011, a change instituted by Benedict XVI, who is sadly Emeritus. There are many clumsy, Latinate phrases used in this translation, but in this case it was an improvement. (The same criticism can be made of the Authorised Version vs. Tyndale, but I digress again…)
The ACNA, evidently bowing to two score of 1979 habit, opted to use “We.” Personally I think the first person singular is better; it attempts to force people to make a commitment to their belief, which is lacking these days. The major problem churches such as the RCC and ACNA (TEC gave up a long time go) have is not getting their people to recite the Creed properly but to believe it. There are several variations of this: the modern (“The Creed is just a historical statement which is mostly a fable,”) the post-modern (“The Creed is correct but it doesn’t really mean what it says”) and the sub-modern (“We really don’t care what the Creed says, we’ll believe what we want to.”)